e-ISSN: 2413-9289
Excellence in Medical Education
السبت 28 ربيع الثاني 1443
Saturday 04th December 2021
Current Issue:
Volume 13 - Issue 3, Jul - Sep 2021
Archives Instructions for Authors Manuscript Submission Review Process Instructions for Reviewer Ahead of Printing Article Tracking
IMJ is recognized by;

- Pakistan Medical & Dental Council (PMDC)

IMJ is Covered by;
- Directory of Open Access scholarly Resources (ROAD)
- Index Copernicus International (IC Journals Master List)
- Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR)
- PakMediNet
- BiblioMed
Consequence of exposure to Endocrine disruptors chemicals on female fertility
Nazish Ali,Saira Ghafoor, Sumaira Zareen, Fehmida Saleh, Zaib-un- Nisa Qureshi, Asma Sajid
Published on:
Journal Reference:
Volume 13 - Issue 3     Jul - Sep 2021
Download Abstract:


Objective: To evaluate the internal concentration of endocrine disruptor chemicals in sub-fertile women and their influence on suitable indicators such as nuclear receptors.

Study Design: A comparative analytical study.

Place and Duration: From 1st Jan 2019 to 1st June 2019 in the Gynecology department at Jinnah Medical College & Hospitals Karachi.

Methodology: 48 sub-fertile women aged 18–40 years were chosen for research. Whereas, women with in same age group, who had spontaneous pregnancy last year were considered as control group. 20ml of blood sample was taken from participants to measure the level of endocrine chemical disruptors. The detected enzymes responsible for endocrine disorders are extracted using the fluid-liquid separation technique and measured using high-performance fluid chromatography. Further, Nuclear receptor genes are investigated for regulation through PCR.

Results: The mean age of the research group for the control group was 36.0 ±4.7 years and 32.6 ± 5.2 years. Immunological infertility (8, 16.6%), tubal infertility (9, 18.7%), unexplained infertility (15, 31.2%), thyroid dysfunction (6, 12.5%), polycystic ovarian syndrome (2, 4.1%), and endometriosis (8, 16.6%) were the main causes of sub-fertility. The concentrations of Bisphenol were significantly higher in infertile patients than fertile patients (70.8% vs 30.7% percent, p<0.01).  There was no substantial difference between groups in the levels of perfluoro octane sulphonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, mono-ethyl hexyl phthalate, and di-(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (p<0.05). Sub fertile women had a significantly higher mean expression than fertile people in alpha and beta receptor, androgen receptor, and pregnant X receptor (p>0.05). The mean levels of Peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor between the two groups had no significant difference (p<0.05).

Conclusion: In conclusion, our results have further validated the evidence of the role of endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure in causing infertility among women and highlights their influence on nuclear receptors, hence indicating them as an effective biomarker of the disruptions caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals.

Keywords: Endocrine disruptors, Sub-fertility, Chemical exposure, Nuclear Receptors, Sub fertile women

How to Cite This:

Ali N, Ghafoor S, Zareen S, Saleh F, Qureshi ZUN, Sajid A. Consequence of exposure to Endocrine disruptors chemicals on female fertility. Isra Med J. 2021; 13(3): 172-176.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.